Vibration of sound- waves

Different waves are different lengths

Sound is made of waves that our ears perceive

Speed of Sound

The speed of sound is different depending on the type of fluid that is being observed. It is based off of how fast a disturbance can travel through a fluid due to the relationship between pressure and density. Refer to equation 1.

Speed of Sound Equation(1)

c = Speed of Sound

dP = Pressure Differential

dρ = Density Differential


Since there is a relationship between pressure and density a pressure wave builds up has an object approaches the speed of sound. Because of this pressure wave, it is impossible for an object to travel exactly at the speed of sound. The reason why is because as the object flies at the speed of sound the pressure wave will continue to build until it destroys the object. This is why jets have after burners. The after burners are used to get the jet past this building pressure wave and essentially break the sound barrier causing the plane to out run its pressure wave which is referred to as the sonic boom. To relate an objects speed to the speed of sound, the Mach number would be used, which is a unit less number. Refer to equation 2.

Mach Number Equation(2)

v = Velocity


Finally, the ideal gas law can also be used to calculate the speed of sound. It will be assumed that an isentropic process will occur. Refer to equation 3.

Speed of Sound and ideal gas law Equation(3)

k = Specific Heat Ratio

R = Ideal Gas Constant

T = Temperature

Vibrations in water

Ticking of a Clock

Try this at home!

Sound Experiment

Lets talk about the ear


Outer ear- What you see of your ear. Ear Canal has little hair on the inside. When you damage your hearing you break the these little hairs and they don’t grow back.

Sound is measured in Decibels (Db)

At what decibel do you start to lose you hearing? With extended exposure, 85 decibels of sound will cause loss of hearing. Extended exposure is about 10 minutes

Normal conversation is at about 59-65 decibels

Sound Levels of Music

Normal piano practice

60 -70dB

Fortissimo Singer, 3′


Chamber music, small auditorium

75 – 85dB

Piano Fortissimo

84 – 103dB


82 – 92dB


85 -111dB




92 -103dB


90 -106dB


85 – 114dB

French horn

90 – 106dB


85 – 114dB

Tympani & bass drum


Walkman on 5/10


Symphonic music peak

120 – 137dB

Amplifier, rock, 4-6′


Rock music peak 150dB


How can you protect your hearing?

How instruments are made:

How A Flute is Made

How a Trombone is Made





Instrument Families

Woodwind Family


Piccolo, Flute, Clarinet, Saxophones, Oboe, English Horn, Bassoon

-have a reed to vibrate and make the sound resonance

-piccolo and flute uses the mouth piece to resonate

Brass Family 


Trumpet, French Horn, Trombone, Baritone, Tuba

-Mouth piece and lips create a buzz which creates the resonance

-all use piston or roar valves, trombone uses a slide

-called brass because they are made of brass; some made parts of silver

Percussion Family


Many many percussion instruments

-need a mallet or a hand to create the percussive sound

-some change notes and some remain the same note throughout

String Family


Violin, Viola, Cello, Upright Bass, Guitar, Harp

-have strings that are bowed or plucked

-strings vibrate that resonate inside instrument

Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra


Flute – Label the parts of the flute as I explain and show them

The flute is silver and plays the highest of all the instruments.

The it has a smaller version called the Piccolo. There are also two bigger flutes that are called the Alto Flute and the Bass Flute


Flute – Inspector Gadget


The Oboe is about the same size as the flute, but it is black. It has about the same number of keys as well.

It is a double reed instrument, which means that both the top and bottom lip play on the reed.

The larger cousin to the oboe is called the English Horn


Tchaikovsky- Oboe Solo


Clarinet- label the parts of the Clarinet as I explain and show them

The Clarinet is black, either plastic or wood and only a little longer than the flute.

The Clarinet has many keys and even has 4 keys for each pinky.

The Clarinet has a smaller version called the Eb Clarinet. There are also many larger clarinets. Alto, Contralto, Bass, Contrabass.


Contrabass Clarinet Solo- Philip Glass


Label parts of the saxophone as we talk about it!

The Saxophone is usually a brass color, but also come in silver.

Since the saxophone is part of the woodwind family, it also has many keys, but not as many as the Clarinet.

The Saxophone also has a smaller version call the Soprano Saxophone. Like the other woodwind instruments it has larger versions as well. The Tenor, Baritone, and Bass. (There is actually a contra bass also)


Saxophone Quartet- Jazz Suite


The bassoon is made of wood and is often a wooden color, they are also sometimes black.

Like all the woodwind instruments, the Bassoon has many keys. It is so long that the tubes are wrapped up on the inside.

Like the Oboe and English Horn, the Bassoon is a double reed instrument. It also has a larger version called the Contra Bassoon


Bassoon -Rite of Spring


Made of brass and has 3 piston valves.

Treble Clef brass instrument

Usually a brass or a silver color.

Wynton Marsalis- trumpet

French Horn

Made of brass also. Unlike the other instruments in the brass family, the French Horn has rotor valves instead of piston valve. These valve turn side to side instead of move up and down.

This instrument also plays in the treble clef and is seen as a brass or silver color.

Vienna Horns- Back to the Future


This instrument is different from any in the brass family because it doesn’t have valves at all. It has a slide that is used to change notes. There are 7 positions on the trombone

This instrument plays in the bass clef and also come in a brass or silver color.

Trombone Shorty


The baritone has valves like a trumpet, but is much larger.

The instrument is different because it plays in the bass clef. But it is the same as other brass instruments in color.

Baritone – Flight of the Bumble Bee


The tuba is the largest instrument in the brass family but shares the same color traits.

It also plays in the bass clef.

Mnozil Brass- Tuba Solo


Keys made of rosewood and is played in both treble and bass clef. Most come in 3 octaves, while some can come in 4 octaves. Uses mallets to strike the keys which makes the sound.


Marching Snare, Bass Drum, and Tenor Drum

Uses two sticks on a drum head. Two drum heads and snares use a snare on the bottom.

Bluecoats Drumline


These percussion instruments are hand instruments and have beads or seeds on the inside.



This instrument is also  one that is mostly used with the hands. You can tap it on your hand, shake it, or run your thumb across it.



Plays in the treble clef. Has 4 string E A D G (high to low).



Plays in the Alto Clef and the 4 strings are. A D G C (high to low)



Plays in the bass clef and has 4 strings. C G D A (high to low)

Cello- Yo Yo Ma

String Bass

Plays in the bass Clef and has 4 string. G D A E ( high to low)

Bass – Pirates

The Elements of Music

Staff, Notes(Pitches), Note Length, Rhythms, Dynamics, Tempo

The staff 

5 lines and 4 spaces

Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 5.57.02 PM

Treble Clef- played by all woodwind instruments, trumpet, french horn, and bells

Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 5.58.37 PM

Lindsey Stirling- Violin

Bass Clef- played by all low brass instruments, timpani and sometimes marimba

Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 5.59.22 PM

Mat Mcintosh- Tuba

Grand Staff- played by pianists

Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 5.57.39 PM

John Cage- Prepared Piano

The notes (pitches)

How will you remember the notes?? Create your own acronym. 

Treble Clef       :   Lines- EGBDF      Spaces- FACE

Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 6.06.09 PM

Bass Clef          :    Lines- GBDFA     Spaces- ACEG

Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 6.06.44 PM

Duration of notes

Whole Note= 4 counts   Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 8.19.27 PM

Half Note= 2 counts  Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 8.20.08 PM

Quarter Note = 1 count     Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 8.20.45 PM

Eighth Note = 1/2 count    8th note

Sixteenth Note = 1/4 countScreen Shot 2017-08-16 at 8.22.05 PM

Screen Shot 2017-08-16 at 8.16.33 PM


Counting: Down beats are numbers 1, 2, 3, 4   Up beats are +


Dotted Rhythms – a dot adds half of the value of what kind of note it is on to itself

dotted whole note= 6

dotted half note= 3

dotted quarter note = 1 1/2

dotted 8th note = 3/4


How loud or how soft music sounds

pp – pianissimo , very  soft

Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun

p – piano , soft

mp – mezzo piano, medium soft

mf- mezzo forte, medium loud

f – forte, loud

ff- fortissimo , very loud

Pines of Rome- Mvt. 4

Crescendo- gradually get louder

Decrescendo – gradually get softer

Time signatures

4/4, 3/4, 2/4




Bottom note is what kind of note gets the beat

Top note is how many are in a measure

Changing the bottom note





Speed of a piece of music , can be a number or a word

quarter note = 100, or with note = 140

Vivace = very fast

Largo = very slow


Lets Practice!

Go to : Reading Notes

Here is a fun Cross Word Puzzle! Music Cross Word


Alison Balsom

—piccolo trumpet with rotary values,

from the Baroque period, Bach concerto


What do you notice about her playing?

What syllable is she using for articulation?

What kind of air is she using?



I had the opportunity to go to a music conference and was exposed to so many great education strategies and had a great time while I was there.

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It didn’t matter what instrument you played or part you sang, being a music educator was the importance of this conference. One great thing about the conference was being able to hear Victor Wooten talk about music. The first session I was at he talked about music and how the bass has influenced music. Although I do play the flute, everything he talked about and was explaining was so cool and was something I could relate to. It was so cool how he would ask a question about a song or a musician and people would know what he was alluding to. And when we didn’t know what it was all he had to do was play a couple of notes and the light bulb went on. He also talked about overtones on a bass and when that was first tried. Although some of these aspects don’t relate to me personally, I paid attention to how he was talking and reacting to people. Everyone was paying attention to him and learning in some way. There were also volunteers who went up and sang and also had a good time.

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The next session I attended was Salsa for kids. This was so much fun. We got to met Freddie the frog and learn about the newest book he was in. This book obviously had a Latin twist to it. There were lots of different percussion instruments that were used with different rhythms that went with a salsa step. It was also very interactive and would be great for any music class really. Some parts could be taken out for K-3 to make it easier for them.

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I got to play with drums next which was my favorite. We learned raps about respect and responsibility. They were created by Dancing Drums for inner city kids which taught them about these things. They also learned about being healthy and keeping there body healthy. I got to play small wood blocks, a djembe,  and an assortment of percussion instruments.

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I am learning more and more that there is definitely more then one way to teach music. I have learned some great interactive ways to do it. Whether it be how to engage my class and how to keep there attention; or how to incorporate dancing, playing a percussion instrument and remembering my rhythm; or helping teach students to respect there body and others through awesome percussion rhythms and raps! I very much enjoyed my time at the convention and can’t wait to go again!